This report provides support for the exploitation and operation of the DORA solution by defining potential sustainable business and cooperation model options . D3.5 is the outcome of task 3.4. Establishment of Business and Cooperation models, the aim of which is to provide information regarding the selection criteria for DORA business model. The report describes business requirements and value elements of each key stakeholder involved to DORA platform and analyses their impact on the establishment of business and cooperation models. This includes the identification and analysis of potential benefits and sacrifices of the DORA systems within various stakeholder groups, other (external) restrictions and the interactions between the stakeholders as part of the ecosystem.
Platform-based ecosystems consist of networks of actors combining resources and capabilities to make business and as such are subject to certain idiosyncratic management challenges. Proactively responding to these common challenges requires making informed choices about ecosystem design, governance and health that also shape the business model options available. DORA is a mobility information integrator type of business within the MaaS (Mobility as a Service) provider tier of the value chain, where it creates value to the entire mobility ecosystem by exploiting, connecting and refining currently underutilized mobility information. However the benefits are distributed unequally across the platform participants leading to a need to employ business model structures that seek to align the costs borne and benefits enjoyed to a satisfactory degree. In changing established relative power structures on the mobility market and reshaping business models, the decision to join the platform is contingent on a number of business realities and restrictions that are discussed here as business requirements such as data security and effective contractual governance to mitigate risks of participation.
DORA can be exploited by utilizing multiple alternative and even complementary business models. We recommend an approach that combines three complementary business models operating on different time scales, value offerings and customer segment focuses. These are Technology licensing, API access and Platform integration. Some implications for exploitation, transferability and collaborative development of DORA are also provided.